A decade evolution of virtual and remote laboratories


  • Nurul Fajriah Andini Universitas Negeri Malang
  • Popy Maulida Dewi Universitas Negeri Malang
  • Tyas Agung Cahyaning Marida Universitas Negeri Malang
  • Aji Prasetya Wibawa Universitas Negeri Malang
  • Andrew Nafalski University of South Australia




Virtual Laboratory , remote laboratory, evolution


The conventional-experimental laboratory has problems of times, expenses, risks, distances, and spaces. A potential solution to such problems is a virtual and remote laboratory. It uses web or mobile applications and internet networks for virtual learning. This paper discusses the recent development of virtual and remote laboratories in the last decade. An in-depth literature review is performed to discover any facts about VR laboratory development. The results of this review may lead to the future development of virtual and remote laboratories.

Author Biographies

Aji Prasetya Wibawa, Universitas Negeri Malang



Andrew Nafalski, University of South Australia




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2023-03-30 — Updated on 2023-07-03

How to Cite

Andini, N. F., Dewi, P. M., Marida, T. A. C., Wibawa, A. P., & Nafalski, A. (2023). A decade evolution of virtual and remote laboratories. Bulletin of Social Informatics Theory and Application, 7(1), 63–73. https://doi.org/10.31763/businta.v7i1.203