Classification of Concentration Levels in Adult-Early Phase using Brainwave Signals by Applying K-Nearest Neighbor
Keywords:Brainwave, EEG, SPM, KNN, Concentration Level
The brain controls the center of human life. Through the brain, all activities of living can be done. One of them is cognitive activity. Brain performance is influenced by mental conditions, lifestyle, and age. Cognitive activity is an observation of mental action, so it includes psychological symptoms that involve memory in the brain's memory, information processing, and future planning. In this study, the concentration level was measured at the age of the adult-early phase (18-30 years) because in this phase, the brain thinks more abstractly and mental conditions influence it. The purpose of this study was to see the level of concentration in the adult-early phase with a stimulus in the form of cognitive activity using IQ tests with the type of Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) tests. To find out the IQ test results require a long time, so in this study, a recording was done to get brain waves so that the results of the concentration level can be obtained quickly.
EEG data was taken using an Electroencephalogram (EEG) by applying the SPM test as a stimulus. The acquisition takes three times for each respondent, with a total of 10 respondents. The method implemented in this study is a classification with the k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN) algorithm. Before using this method, preprocessing is done first by reducing the signal and filtering the beta signal (13-30 Hz).
The results of the data taken will be extracted first to get the right features, feature extraction in this study using first-order statistical characteristics that aim to find out the typical information from the signals obtained. The results of this study are the classification of concentration levels in the categories of high, medium, and low. Finally, the results of this study show an accuracy rate of 70%.
How to Cite
License and Copyright Agreement
In submitting the manuscript to the journal, the authors certify that:
- They are authorized by their co-authors to enter into these arrangements.
- The work described has not been formally published before, except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, review, thesis, or overlay journal.
- That it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere,
- That its publication has been approved by all the author(s) and by the responsible authorities – tacitly or explicitly – of the institutes where the work has been carried out.
- They secure the right to reproduce any material that has already been published or copyrighted elsewhere.
- They agree to the following license and copyright agreement.
Authors who publish with Signal and Image Processing Letters agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY-SA 4.0) that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.
Licensing for Data Publication
Signal and Image Processing Letters use a variety of waivers and licenses, that are specifically designed for and appropriate for the treatment of data:
- Open Data Commons Attribution License, http://www.opendatacommons.org/licenses/by/1.0/ (default)
- Creative Commons CC-Zero Waiver, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/
- Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and Licence, http://www.opendatacommons.org/licenses/pddl/1-0/
Other data publishing licenses may be allowed as exceptions (subject to approval by the editor on a case-by-case basis) and should be justified with a written statement from the author, which will be published with the article.